THE GLOBAL COCOA MARKET STRUGGLES FOR RESTORING PLUMMETED DEMAND
IndexBox has just published a new report: ‘World – Cocoa Beans – Market Analysis, Forecast, Size, Trends and Insights’.Here is a summary of the report’s key findings.
The closure of the HoReCa segment caused the demand for cocoa beans to collapse in 2020, while global production declined only slightly. This led to a surge in unsold cocoa bean stocks in exporter-countries. EU chocolate producers are now trying to enlist a range of measures to ensure stable demand and secure supply chains on the cocoa bean market.
Key Trends and Insights
The pandemic weakened demand for chocolate and cocoa beans. Despite this, global cocoa bean output experienced only a marginal decline. Data from The International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) indicates that cocoa bean production in Africa fell by 2.4%, in Asia and Australasia, by 7.3%, but in America, production saw an increase of 2.7%. The global cocoa bean grindings production fell by 4,784 thousand tonnes in 2019 to 4,631 thousand tonnes in 2020.
As of May 2020, global cocoa bean imports slumped sharply and import figures remained low until the end of the 2020 period (IndexBox estimates). In Europe, over the period from March to December 2020, cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery production featured a decline against the figures of 2019. The biggest drop was in April 2020 when production fell by 13.9% as compared to the same period in the previous year. American confectionery market, however, remained relatively stable. Côte d’Ivoire, a key exporter, was particularly affected by the slump in demand: huge cocoa bean stocks have been accumulating in farm warehousing facilities and export terminals since December 2020.
The overproduction resulted in a slump in prices. The ICCO daily price for cocoa beans (the average of the quotations of the nearest three active futures trading months on ICE Futures Europe (London) and ICE Futures US (New York) at the time of London close) peaked at $2,716 per tonne in February 2020; by March 2021, the price had fallen to $2,462 per tonne. The price hike seriously affected the cocoa bean growers in Côte d’Ivoire and other major cocoa bean producing countries, threatening their income and the potential to invest in expanding production.
The re-opening of the HoReCa segment following the lifting of the coronavirus restrictions and a recovery in the demand are both set to be key drivers of the cocoa bean market recovery. The EU investment (25 million Euros) into cocoa bean production in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Cameroon, which together assume 70% of global output, should improve supply chain stability, at least for particular involved companies.
The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium have all signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in a bid to ensure stable cocoa bean demand to 2025; through cooperation under the Memorandum (MOU), the objective remains improved market transparency, involvement in multinational companies, sustainable communication, improved working conditions for farmers and measures to protect the environment near the farms.
Cote d’Ivoire to Remain the Key Manufacture and Exporter of Cocoa Beans
In 2019, after two years of growth, there was a decline in the production of cocoa beans, when its volume decreased by -3.8% to 5.7M tonnes. The total output volume increased at an average annual rate of +2.6% over the period from 2012 to 2019 (IndexBox estimates).
In value terms, cocoa bean production contracted slightly to $14.2B in 2019 estimated at export prices. The total output value increased at an average annual rate of +1.9% from 2012 to 2019.
Cote d’Ivoire (2.2M tonnes) remains the largest cocoa bean producing country worldwide, accounting for 38% of the total volume. Moreover, cocoa bean production in Cote d’Ivoire exceeded the figures recorded by the second-largest producer, Ghana (812K tonnes), threefold. The third position in this ranking was occupied by Indonesia (784K tonnes), with a 14% share.
In Cote d’Ivoire, cocoa bean production expanded at an average annual rate of +5.6% over the period from 2012-2019. The remaining producing countries recorded the following average annual rates of production growth: Ghana (-1.1% per year) and Indonesia (+0.8% per year).
Cote d’Ivoire was the major exporter of cocoa beans in the world, with the volume of exports reaching 1.6M tonnes, which was near 40% of total exports in 2019. Ghana (668K tonnes) occupied a 16% share (based on tonnes) of total exports, which put it in second place, followed by Nigeria (7.8%), Cameroon (7.7%), Ecuador (6.6%) and Belgium (4.9%). The Netherlands (168K tonnes) followed a long way behind the leaders.
Exports from Cote d’Ivoire increased at an average annual rate of +7.0% from 2012 to 2019. At the same time, Ecuador (+9.1%), Cameroon (+8.8%), Belgium (+8.2%), Nigeria (+6.3%), the Netherlands (+2.4%) and Ghana (+1.9%) displayed positive paces of growth. Moreover, Ecuador emerged as the fastest-growing exporter exported in the world, with a CAGR of +9.1% from 2012-2019. Cote d’Ivoire (+5.8 p.p.), Cameroon (+1.9 p.p.) and Ecuador (+1.7 p.p.) significantly strengthened its position in terms of the global exports, while Ghana saw its share reduced by -3.3% from 2012 to 2019, respectively. The shares of the other countries remained relatively stable throughout the analyzed period.
In value terms, Cote d’Ivoire ($3.6B), Ghana ($1.9B) and Nigeria ($730M) were the countries with the highest levels of exports in 2019, with a combined 63% share of global exports. These countries were followed by Cameroon, Ecuador, Belgium and the Netherlands, which together accounted for a further 23% (IndexBox estimates).
Source: IndexBox AI Platform